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The resulting decrease in p H can decrease calcification in marine organisms.A potential problem for fish hearing, which relies on a calcium carbonate structure in the inner ear (called an otolith).Fish usually hear best within the 30-1000Hz range with some species that can detect up to 5000Hz and other very exceptional species that are sensitive to infrasound or ultrasound (for comparison, people can generally hear between 20 to 20,000Hz, though are most sensitive to waterborne sounds between about 400 to 2,000Hz). Photo source: One example of how fish use sound, is to attract and find mates.Left: The inner ear with three semicircular canals and three otolith organs. Male midshipman fish, for example, sing to attract females; serenading females to come from afar to drop their eggs in the male’s nest.This is an important result as disruptions to these auditory cues could inhibit nighttime migrations of juvenile fish to those more protective reef habitats.Four main domains of research described by Slabbekoorn et al. The noise in our aquatic environments has changed over the last century as more and more people are using motorized boats in coastal areas, and with increased coastal development, oil and gas exploration, and shipping.It is important that we understand how human activities, both in obvious and unexpected ways, impact the ability of fish to reproduce and survive to maintain healthy fisheries as well as protect our aquatic ecosystems. In: Hearing and hormones Eds: Bass AH, Sisneros JA, Popper AN, Fay RR. doi:10.1073/pnas.1301365110Reimer T, Dempster T, Warren-Myers F, Jensen AJ, Swearer SE. High prevalence of vaterite in sagittal otoliths causes hearing impairment in farmed fish.Nature.com: Scientific Reports DOI: 10.1038/srep25249Slabbekoorn H, Bouton N, van Opzeeland I, Coers A, ten Cate C, Popper AN. A noisy spring: the impact of globally rising underwater sound levels on fish.

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Another example of how fish use sound comes from a study that used sounds recorded from different habitat types to see how juvenile fish responded.

They found juvenile fish used sounds from particular habitats to orient and guide nighttime movements to desired reef habitats.

Unexpectedly, another impact on fish hearing may be fish farming.

Otoliths are normally composed of aragonite (a stable calcium carbonate mineral) with the rare occurrence of vaterite instead (a less stable form of calcium carbonate) in wild fish.

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